冲刺的权威指南,第1部分:冲刺的好处

As 原始的enthusiasts know, 短跑ing is an essential element to leading an optimally fit life. After all, it’s one of the 10 原始的Blueprint Laws,以及最典型的抗衰老活性。 Brief, explosive all-out 短跑s are the single best activity to promote rapid reduction of excess body fat, achieve fitness breakthroughs, flood the bloodstream with anti-aging hormones like testosterone 和 human growth hormone, 和 boost neuron function in the brain. Even a very brief 短跑 session has a profound effect on your metabolic 和 hormonal function for hours 和 days afterward, sending what Paleo movement pioneer Dr. Art DeVany calls a “renewal signal” to your genes.

Part 1 of this two-part Definitive Guide details how 和 why 短跑ing is so beneficial to your general health, 减脂在所有较低强度下的健身表现. Part 2 details the step-by-step process to conduct an effective 短跑 workout.

Too many well intentioned fitness enthusiasts conduct 短跑 workouts in a flawed manner, 和 suffer from breakdown 和 burnout accordingly. Many more fitness enthusiasts are intimidated by 短跑ing, thinking it carries a high injury risk 和 pain 和 suffering factor. 短跑是每个人的一项基本健身目标,但您必须学习如何正确地做到这一点,以享受好处并预防陷阱。 


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短跑ing: The Ultimate 原始的Workout

短跑ing is a powerful hormetic stressor—a brief, natural fight or flight stimulation triggering that renewal signal that makes you more resilient not just for your next 短跑 workout, but for all other forms of life stress. 毕竟,人类在偶尔的短暂生存,死亡威胁中进化,需要超人的体力才能杀死或杀死。当我们按照基因期望的方式偶尔磨练我们的战斗或逃跑属性时,我们会保持年轻,强大,充满活力和自信。相反,当我们沉迷于无尽的舒适和便利中,并避免冲刺,力量训练,暴露于冷或热等刺激性压力时,我们就会全面萎缩,并且对所有形式的生活压力的抵抗力都会减弱。

Upping your 短跑 game can help you make an assortment of breakthroughs, from 减脂 to fitness peak performance in a variety of activities (yes, including endurance 和 ultra-endurance events), 和 generally making you a more confident, energetic person.

短跑ing rocks, but unfortunately most people never take full advantage of it. Others incorporate 短跑ing but apply it incorrectly to their fitness routine (more on that below). The most obvious error is that people simply avoid 短跑ing. They think it’s only for competitive athletes, that they aren’t fit enough to try. Or they avoid 短跑ing because they tell themselves they dislike intense effort of any kind.

While running 短跑s definitely requires high fitness competency due to the impact trauma 和 explosiveness, 短跑s can also be performed in no- or low-impact activities such as stationary bike, rowing machine, or swimming. Running 短跑s delivers maximum results for bone density, joint 和 connective tissue strength, 和 fat reduction, but you can benefit tremendously from all forms of 短跑ing, 和 perhaps work your way up to eventually performing weight-bearing 短跑s.

短跑为何有助于减脂和耐力表现

很难想象每周只有几分钟的全力以赴会对您的减脂目标产生巨大影响。很难想象有人为一次26.2英里的马拉松或全天的铁人三项训练而训练如何从每周一次在足球场上来回奔跑而受益匪浅。秘诀是冲刺时发生的遗传信号,激素优化和中枢神经系统编程的加速水平。

When you conduct an all-out 短跑, you’要求您的身体在新陈代谢功能水平上的表现要比您的静止输出高出30倍。 这是一个被称为 任务的代谢当量(MET). 通过 comparison, a brisk walk, casual bike ride, or easy swim is 6-10 MET, while running at a steady “tempo” pace is around 13.5 MET. 30 MET的体验会向您的基因发送强大的适应性信号,以减少体内脂肪,加速脂肪燃烧并提高荷尔蒙水平,从而具有抗衰老作用。 While the hormone spikes are brief in duration, the genetic signaling effects of a 短跑 workout last for hours 和 days afterward.

众多研究 have shown that 短跑ing 火箭生长激素水平 快速可靠地 促进蛋白质合成 (肌肉锻炼或健美)减少230%。 已故加拿大力量与调理专家 查尔斯·波利奎因 communicated the idea that 短跑ing gives the best ROI beautifully. Dig this quote from the 文章, “8 Reasons Everyone Should Do 短跑s” at PoliquinGroup.com: “A 2010 study found that just six 短跑 sessions of 6 x 30-second all-out cycle 短跑s with four minutes rest over 2 weeks led to a leaner waist by 3 centimeters, 和 much greater use of fat for fuel.”

如果您陷入健身心态中存在缺陷且过时的卡路里卡路里中,可能很难想象每月仅进行几次几次简短的锻炼对您的脂肪减少和健身进度会有可测量的影响,但是这就是基因信号转导的方式。在您的燃脂机中投入约30 MET燃料,在锻炼后长达72小时,它会加速运转。科学极力支持我的玩笑,说没有什么比冲刺更能伤到你了。

结合生理益处, 短跑ing delivers huge psychological benefits by reducing your perceived exertion at all lesser intensity levels. 当您训练心脏,肺部,大脑神经元和肌肉以使其发挥最大能力时,您的细胞能量产生将变得更加有效,并且使慢跑或速度跑步变得更容易。实际上,这种减少的运动感觉是正确的,因为您的大脑是性能的最终限制者,而不是疲劳的周围肌肉。这个 中央总督理论 概念由 蒂莫西·诺阿克斯博士,伟大的南非运动生理学家,低碳水化合物和酮饮食的促进者。 Noakes解释说,我们典型的疲劳症状是肌肉燃烧和肺部胀大 是“虚幻的” 并且这些身体上的不适感仅仅是大脑处理来自身体的反馈并产生疲劳症状以保护您免受潜在伤害的。

当您在体育馆里进行卧推或引体向上失败时,您可以最好地理解这种中央调速器概念。确实,那第12个代表看起来像您所拥有的,但是如果有人过来把枪对准您的头部并咆哮着,“再说两次!”,您的大脑肯定会指示您尖叫的肌肉再执行两次!对于所有参加过马拉松比赛的人来说,同上—无论您的身体状况如何,最后六英里都不好玩。如果没有等待家人和朋友的终点线,温暖的毯子和新鲜食物,您的身体可能会抽筋并在21.5英里,23.4英里或25.1英里处停止工作。无论如何,中央总督都将带您到达终点,然后让您的身体崩溃到种族医务人员的怀抱中!

Getting Started As A 短跑er

The first step toward becoming a 短跑er is to adopt an empowering new mindset that you are capable of 短跑ing, 这是健身计划中极为重要的元素。

Next, establish a movement 和 exercise routine that will prepare your body sufficiently for the rigors of 短跑ing. If you are already putting in devoted miles on the road or the treadmill, getting to Pilates or yoga regularly, 和 otherwise keeping active 和 fit, you can easily 和 quickly integrate some top-end efforts into your workout routine.

If your fitness regimen is currently lacking, it’s best to focus on increasing all forms of general everyday movement before pursuing ambitious fitness goals like 短跑ing. 从那里,您可以建立一个受人尊敬的有氧训练基础,以“ 180负龄”每分钟心跳的心律舒适地安排有氧运动,还可以进行一些常规的力量训练,以使您的肌肉,关节和结缔组织恢复弹性适用于各种日常活动,伤害风险最小。力量训练可以是对肌肉施加阻力的任何事物,包括原始的基本运动(俯卧撑,引体向上,下蹲和木板运动),阻力带或绳索,家用健身器材,健身房的机器回路或免费的重量。

经过几个月的频繁运动,进行舒适的有氧运动并举起重物之后,是时候进行一些简短的全力以赴的锻炼,并享受快速的健身突破了。 However, with the increased benefits comes increased risk. 短跑ing is a high-stress endeavor that should be done infrequently, with an extremely careful 和 deliberate protocol every time, 和 with extended recovery time afterward. It seems the concept of 短跑ing has been misappropriated by coaches, trainers 和 devoted exercisers such that attempts are made to push the body to maximum output at most every workout.

请记住,原始蓝图法的标题是“Sprint 偶尔” because this aligns with our ancestral experience 和 our genetic expectations for health. If you attempt to 短跑 too frequently, your 短跑s become mediocre by default, because of excess output with insufficient recovery. 短跑锻炼应该是一个特殊的场合,您会感到100%的休息和精力充沛,以达到最佳表现。 Furthermore, you should only 短跑 for short duration, complete minimal reps, 和 take extensive rest periods between your 短跑 efforts—details follow. This ensures you enjoy maximum hormonal 和 fitness benefits with minimal cellular breakdown 和 risk of exhaustion.

这就是赋予新思维的能力的全部内容:谨慎和尊重对待您的身体,并搁置关于“不痛苦,不收获”的常见但有缺陷的观念,而保持一致性是健身的必要。 持续施加压力而休息不足,身体就会崩溃。因此,尽管您可以努力实现健康,积极的生活,饮食和睡眠的一贯方式,但您必须像一名优秀的运动员一样思考,并采取身体每天给您的东西,仅此而已。如果您计划在星期二进行一次短跑锻炼,并且肌肉僵硬或嗓子发痒,那么您必须扔掉最好的健身计划,直到您感到非常精力充沛并在休息时感到兴奋。

冲刺:确定最佳次数,持续时间和恢复

A revolutionary 文章 by Dr. Craig 标记er at BreakingMuscle.com titled, HIIT与HIRT提出令人信服的论据,并得到广泛的科学支持,可以完成我很长一段时间以来一直在说的事情: Keep your 短跑s short in duration, explosive in nature, not too many, 和 not too often. Craig的文章详细说明了原因 the ideal duration for your 短跑s is between 10 和 20 seconds. The scientific truth is no one can 短跑 for longer than around 30 seconds without slowing down, 和 the cellular destruction required to sustain maximum effort beyond 10 seconds increases exponentially. From zero to 10 seconds, your rocket engine does just fine blasting off the line 和 accelerating furiously to maximum speed. Internally, your cells are burning their stored supply of pure ATP for energy.

经过10秒钟的最大努力,您无法产生足够的ATP来保持全速。 向熟悉的肌肉酸累积燃烧打个招呼。当您持续推动超过10秒钟时,您的身体就会开始分解和脱氨的细胞过程,以便提供更多的ATP,以实现最大的能量输出。 标记er博士将这种拆卸和脱氨过程描述为“破坏细胞的A型框架”。从冲刺中获得的线粒体生物生成的好处被搁置了,氨积累达到毒性水平,并且您实质上油炸了细胞以到达遥远的终点。当您在锻炼过程中立即感到烧灼时,在锻炼后的数小时和数天中,您还会感到疲劳,免疫紊乱,脑雾(氨对脑神经元特别有害)和肌肉无力。底线:尝试冲刺超过10到20秒根本不值得。

让我们在10到20秒的最佳时刻内更具体。 如果您停留在低端(10秒)’re a novice 短跑er, if you’re training for explosive sports or have high percentage fast-twitch muscle fibers, or if you are doing high-impact running 短跑s. You can extend to the high end (20 seconds) if you’re doing no- or low-impact 短跑s or preparing for endurance events. 但是即使是耐力怪胎,也要20秒。

那里’s simply no reason to ever 短跑 longer than 20 seconds unless you’试图打破南非Wayde Van Niekerk的400米世界纪录。提示:您不会的,因为这是人类历史上最出色的运动表演之一。 观看视频 并且您会看到Wayde实际上在43.03秒内进行了“冲刺”,从而在里约奥运会上从外面的车道上获得了金牌。 las,您可以从终点线上的Van Niekerk精力充沛的状态中看出来,与休闲健身爱好者相比,精英运动员受到细胞衰弱的影响要小得多。

The other thing you want to guard against is cumulative fatigue during a 短跑 workout, because this will prompt cellular destruction 和 extended recovery time. Unfortunately, cumulative fatigue is pretty much the essence of a HIIT workout. You repeat a work effort that’s a little too long, too many times, with not enough rest between efforts. The workout becomes a suffer fest 和 ammonia bath instead of a proper, highly explosive 短跑 workout. Even the respected science behind the popular Tabata训练规程 被广泛地混入了太长的锻炼过程中,并且消耗to尽,无法提供Tabata博士在日本的优秀速滑运动员中获得的最大VO2最大增加。请意识到,原始的Tabata协议要执行熟悉的20秒,10秒关闭,总共只有4分钟!如今,世界各地的体育馆都提供“塔巴塔课程” 最多可以持续一个小时-以2:1的工作与休息比率悬挂壶铃,做粗麻布或踩踏自行车。

我希望您在这里接受的革命性观念是 you must deliver a consistent quality of effort for the duration of your 短跑 workout. This means both the measured performance 和 the perceived exertion are similar. If your first 短跑 of 50 yards across half a football field takes 10 seconds 和 feels like an 85 on a 1-100 effort scale, you want your final 短跑 to be of similar time 和 similar effort. (Okay, a tiny bit of attrition is acceptable, say 11 seconds at 90 effort level on your final 短跑. But what you don’t want is to struggle 和 strain on your final efforts to stay around 11 seconds, nor start coming through in 12 seconds at that 85 effort level.)

Once performance declines or more effort is required to sustained performance, your 短跑 workout is over. Go hard 和 go home! I contend, along with Dr. 标记er 和 many other experts, that 4-10 短跑s are all you ever need to perform. If “more is better” thinking starts to creep in as you get fitter, you must strive to improve performance rather than add reps or increase duration.

准备开始了吗? In “冲刺的权威指南,第2部分” (check it out 这里), I provide a step-by-step protocol to conduct an effective 短跑 workout,尊重本文详细介绍的所有哲学指南。

谢谢大家的阅读。在下面的留言板上让我知道您的问题和想法。

关于作者

马克·西森(Mark Sisson)是马克的每日苹果(Apple)的创始人,是原始食品和生活方式运动的教父, 纽约时报 的畅销书 酮还原饮食。他的最新书是 生命的酮在这里,他讨论了如何将酮饮食与原始生活方式相结合,以实现最佳健康和长寿。马克也是其他许多著作的作者,包括 The 原始的Blueprint早在2009年就因推动原始运动/古运动的发展而受到赞誉。在花了三十年的时间对人们进行研究和教育之后,人们对为什么食物是实现和保持最佳健康的关键因素进行了研究,马克推出了 原始的Kitchen,一家真正的食品公司,生产Primal / paleo,keto和Whole30友好型厨房主食。

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  1. 很棒的信息。我63岁’ve been doing my 6-8 full out 短跑s for 8 years 和 can attest to the fact that when I’在进行远足和激烈的散步时,我可以像我的伴侣那样用普通的声音轻松地讲话’t 短跑, is breathless (and she works out Primally except for 短跑ing). It really is a fountain of youth. I 短跑 once every 6-9 days.

  2. 很棒的文章!
    我做了HIIT的修改版:短期高强度训练–首字母缩略词更容易记住……?

  3. 很棒的文章!
    我做了HIIT的修改版:短期高强度训练–首字母缩略词更容易记住……;-)

  4. 我于2013年10月开始SIT。我的协议是在室外楼梯上间隔8次。总共花费25秒,然后休息60秒(这60分钟中我需要大约30秒才能返回到起始位置,这意味着我’m每个间隔执行约78步。我每4至5天这样做一次。我的端粒显示我比2年前少了15岁(64岁)。

    1. 喜吃睡游泳。我做类似的锻炼。 8个30秒的冲刺和一分钟的休息时间8.我每周至少进行3次此操作至少10年(在2个月内达到70次)。这篇文章中的警告很谨慎,但是我将其作为唯一的有氧运动。我在屋子前面跑了23%的倾斜山坡,走得不够快,无法伤害到关节。每周仅一次。其他两个冲刺是倾斜的快速步行(21%倾斜)与固定自行车的组合。我确实感觉每次冲刺结束时乳酸都会燃烧。我认为这4分钟的休息时间是为需要训练以达到最佳表现的运动员而设计的。我的体育锻炼很辛苦,但没有疲劳或其他副作用。如果您问我,长时间的有氧运动比短距离的短跑运动会造成更多的问题。

  5. I love this series 和 love 短跑ing. If there was an exercise version of the most nutrient dense food, 短跑ing would be it for me. 那里’有很多健康益处,’容易,并且只占用您很少的时间。好东西。

  6. Did I miss the suggestion for how often to do a 短跑 workout? I thought the recommendation is once per week, max. Has your thinking on this changed, 标记? Seems from the comments that people do multiple 短跑 sessions per week. Is there harm in this 和 what are the signs of too much?

    1. I too would really like to know this! Read 原始的Endurance 和 I believe the recommendations for 短跑ing were once/ week but only for a few weeks? TY!

  7. 被缩短“tabatas” as my 短跑 workouts. Basically, 2 minutes work out: 20 sec all out burpees or mount climb as can squeeze in. Peaked out at it in early January I d wager.
    如果离开健身房或久坐不动一段时间,它似乎确实会启动电路,使所有其他形式的锻炼更加容易。

  8. Hi 标记, this is great info! Very helpful as someone who has been strength training for years but only recently took up 短跑ing on a stationary bike.
    需要注意的一件事:您和布拉德经常使用这种俗气的“gun to your head”隐喻。我强烈建议您取消这些废话,尤其是考虑到您是在Pulse夜总会枪击事件三周年之日出版该文章的。它’这不是一种有趣或有效的方式来传达您关于在油箱中添加一些紧急燃料的观点。它’每次都会让人分心,可以说是深思熟虑,而且绝对不是中立的。否则,一如既往地出色。

    1. 哦拜托。它’s histrionics like this that make social media 和 message boards such a PITA to wade through. Nobody even equated his comments to 大规模射击ings until you showed up as the Thought Police. It’对您而言很累且不合适。

    2. 对于我们中的一些“gun to the head”是我们及时感觉/反应/行动的完美例证,因此有助于我们运用他们所说的话。自从它与任何大规模枪击事件无关’我们的思维过程就是枪支,我们可以’t “mass shoot”其他任何人,也不应自欺欺人。完美的例证,当有人使用暴力时,我不会感到生气,甚至不会想起暴力。

    3. 在游泳池里我用“Shark Attack”。在我使用的步骤上“Hungry Bear”

    4. 我一生都在附近开枪,所以当有人随便提起我头上的枪时,它就会带出这些词的字面意思。当您知道绕枪的方式时,您不会’不要说话或打强硬。这里没有任何思想上的依据,只是在提醒人们,枪支对有经验的人具有真正的意义,因此Mark和Brad可以更好地考虑其词的含义以更有效地表达自己的观点。

      1. 嗨,八月!这里’提醒您,除了卡拉之外,没有人关心您的枪支/同性恋美德信号神经症…请把自己移到最近的无枪区。谢谢!

  9. 当你有空的时候好好享用它。一世’m afraid that, at 73, my 短跑ing days are over, due to chronic knee pain (osteoarthritis to be confirmed). However, since using an NSAID ointment (diclofenac sodium) prescribed by my doctor, I’能够再次使用椭圆机(一次走两个楼梯)— yay!).

    1. 我听到你德怀兰– at 48 my 短跑ing is over with a torn meniscus.

  10. Thank you for this post 标记. I love it!
    My two big takeaways are to make sure I’m well rested: “Treat your body with care 和 respect 和 set aside the common but flawed notions about “no pain, no gain”—and that consistency is the imperative to fitness.” And secondly, the importance of 短跑ing for just 10-20 seconds (rather than longer durations).
    My current protocol is three 30-second 短跑s. The last 10 seconds of that 30 seconds is brutal. I think I’ll experiment with shortening to 20-second 短跑s.

  11. I’ve been a huge fan of 标记’s blog 和 books for many years now.

    三年前,我被诊断出大腿患有侵袭性肉瘤癌(大肌肉瘤)。令我感到幸运的是,附近的丹佛市拥有该国专门从事“肢体保护”手术的顶级骨科医生。多亏了我的文档和他的团队,我得以坚持不懈,现在可以像以前一样进行几乎所有活动(而且无痛苦,这是巨大的!)…几乎所有活动都达到极限,除了全部冲刺。手术切除了所有的内收肌,以及三个ham绳肌中的两个。因此,轻描淡写地说我的一条腿现在是四足的了!哈

    但是在生活中,我相信秘诀在于识别/利用您可以做的事情。我可以举起,做健美操,远足和骑自行车。同样在去年春天,我惊喜地发现我可以滑雪90%的抗癌能力。

    医生在手术后醒来时对我说的第一句话永远不会离我远点 …“布莱恩(Brian)永远不要折断这条腿,因为它辐射太多”。如果化学疗法在某种程度上影响身体的长期治愈能力,也不会令我感到惊讶。因此,我很清楚,快速下坡和快速骑行(但在控制范围之内)会带来风险,但是生命同样如此!

    All this said, the feeling I’d get from 短跑ing outdoors at the park is definitely what I miss the most. Yet still there’s no question I used to take it for granted, with month stretches during winter for instance where I’d make excuses (too dark after work, too cold, slippery, snowy etc). All are bs excuses.
    BUT I’ve found two amazing alternatives for 短跑 intervals. Both of which I see as often overlooked machines, namely the rowing machine 和 schwinn airdyne bike. I really can’t recommend them enough.
    我最喜欢的是1982年的Airdyne,是我在Boulder的Craigslist上廉价购买的。东西全是钢铁,像坦克一样建造!如果您决定移动它,还可以“举起沉重的东西”!

    1. 感谢您分享此Brian,您是一个真正的灵感。

    2. 抱歉听到您被如此可怕的事情击中,唯一的祝福是您没有’承受尽可能多的伤害并幸免于难。如果有帮助,我确实读过Mark’很久以前在s的论坛上,他尝试了一个攀岩机,因此可能值得一看,将其用于“sprint”锻炼,因为您也可以使用手臂和良好的腿,甚至在某种程度上可以损坏腿–只要您可以提高这几秒钟的强度即可。

  12. Great info 标记! 短跑ing is indeed a must in any exercise regimen. When thinking of running, most people limit themselves to long distance running due to the misplaced belief that 短跑ing is only meant for professional athletes. Consequently, they miss out on the unique health benefits associated with this activity, such as faster metabolism 和 lower workout times.

  13. “30 MET的体验会向您的基因发送强大的适应性信号,以减少体内脂肪,加速脂肪燃烧并提高荷尔蒙水平,从而具有抗衰老作用。”您似乎正在引用的哈佛研究背后是付费壁垒。该研究实际上是这样说的吗?谢谢

  14. 伟大的帖子我的朋友!
    我今年28岁,我是越野跑者,目前正在训练58公里的超级马拉松。我的私人教练为我提供了非常艰巨的训练,我会像30x 300 mts,20x 700mts等冲刺…因此与您的方法相比非常极端。但是我该如何更改?也许比赛后我会减少很多训练…虽然,我在冲刺后从未有任何疾病,也从未感到头晕或类似不适…之后我会很累,这是正常的

  15. 冲刺绝对适合我–每周一次,只需15分钟。您确实会看到运动员进行400米跳操并进行40秒钟以上的搏击,但这是一次越野比赛,中间有很多休息时间。

    一直很有趣的是,所谓的健身教练如何采用了Tabata培训概念,并引诱回到将其转化为健身“cardio” workout –我猜它可以使体育馆保持饱满。我知道人们每天都会虔诚地参加旋转课–时间和恢复时间荒谬,他们抱怨他们只是在学习’减轻他们应有的重量。我每周进行一次冲刺,举重和行走几次,但体重减轻了–更重要的是,我保留了肌肉。

  16. 如此详尽透彻的文章!

    短跑是全年健身和健康锻炼的绝妙方式!

    感谢您的提示!

  17. 喜欢这篇文章!我也很喜欢运动。但是我目前在HIIT停留,’我在做健美运动。
    我想尽快回到HIIT培训!

  18. I like this series 和 love 短跑ing. If there was an exercise version of the most nutrient-dense food, 短跑ing would be it for me. 那里 are many health benefits 和 it takes up a short time. Great stuff.

  19. Thank you for sharing this informative 文章, I think 短跑ing is one of the best ways to stay fit without going to the gym.

  20. Really amazing benefits of 短跑ing explained in amazingly beneficial ways. Part 1 is really superb. I will definitely see part 2 as well. Excellent work!

  21. Really wonderful piece of information. You have explained every single aspect of 短跑ing 和 the benefits it offers quite diligently. 短跑ing is not only good for your overall health, but also for your heart as well.

  22. 被缩短“tabatas” as my 短跑 workouts. Basically, 2 minutes work out: 20 sec all out burpees or mount climb as can squeeze in. Peaked out at it in early January I d wager.